ECD SYSTEM (w/o DPF) Engine Difficult to Start or Stalling

DESCRIPTION


  1. Faults and Symptoms of Common Rail Diesel Components


    1. Engine Control

      Mass Air Flow Meter
      Main fault Decrease in performance (foreign matter is stuck)
      Symptoms Lack of power, black smoke
      Data List MAF

      Tech Tips

      The maximum fuel injection volume is controlled according to the output from the mass air flow meter.

      Intake System
      Symptom and Corresponding Main Fault
      • Lack of power (no black smoke) due to air filter blockage or crushed or leaking air duct

      • Black smoke (no lack of power) due to leakage between the turbo and intake manifold

      Data List MAP
      Turbocharger System
      Main fault
      • Air leak in the turbocharged air passage

      • ECM not operating well

      • Turbocharger (turbine, bearing)

      Symptoms

      Lack of power (when vehicle is starting, under heavy load)

      (Black smoke is not emitted when racing while vehicle is stopped)

      Data List

      MAP


      • With the ignition switch ON or during idling, MAP = atmospheric pressure (standard atmospheric pressure = 101 kPa). When the engine speed is about 1500 rpm or more, the turbocharger starts to take effect and MAP becomes higher than atmospheric pressure.

      • Atmospheric pressure decreases by 1 kPa each time elevation increases by 100 m, and is also affected by the current weather conditions.

      Exhaust System
      Main fault Blockage
      Symptoms Lack of power (high engine speed, under heavy load)
      Glow System
      Main fault Open circuit, glow plug relay fault
      Symptoms Difficult to start, rough idle, knocking, white smoke (when cold)
      Data List Check the glow plug indicator light
      Diagnostic Point Measure the resistance of the glow plug
      Battery
      Main fault Battery is depleted
      Symptoms Difficult to start (cannot crank, crank speed is low), horn is quiet
      Data List

      Battery Voltage

      When cranking, battery voltage is below 5 V.

      Engine - 1
      Main fault Damaged, seized up
      Symptoms Cannot crank, crank speed is low, strange noise
      Engine - 2
      Main fault Loss of compression
      Symptoms Rough idle (lack of power always)
      Data List

      Injection Feedback Val


      • When an Injector Feedback Val is more than 3 mm3/st, there may be a malfunction in the corresponding cylinder.

      Start System
      Main fault Starter system malfunction
      Symptoms Difficult to start
      Data List

      Starter Signal


      • Ignition switch (STA) output:

        ON: Starter is operating

        OFF: Starter is not operating

    2. Diesel Injection

      Fuel Supply Pump
      Main fault -
      Symptoms Difficult to start, engine stalling, rough idle, lack of power
      Data List

      Fuel Press, Target Common Rail Pressure


      • Fuel Press is within 5000 kPa of Target Common Rail Pressure during idling with the engine warmed up (engine coolant temperature is higher than 70°C (158°F)).

      • If the fuel pressure is 20000 kPa below the target pressure, then a lack of power will be felt.

      • If the fuel pressure is below 25000 kPa, then idling will be rough.

      Tech Tips

      The fuel pressure changes at engine start, but is approx. 25000 kPa at engine start after the engine is warmed up.

      Diagnostic Trouble Code Even if Fuel Press is below Target Common Rail Pressure, a DTC will not be stored.
      Fuel Filter
      Main fault Blockage
      Symptoms Difficult to start, engine stalling, rough idle, lack of power
      Data List

      Fuel Press, Target Common Rail Pressure


      • Fuel Press is within 5000 kPa of Target Common Rail Pressure during idling with the engine warmed up (engine coolant temperature is higher than 70°C (158°F)).

      • If the fuel pressure is 20000 kPa below the target pressure, then a lack of power will be felt.

      • If the fuel pressure is below 25000 kPa, then idling will be rough.

      Tech Tips

      The fuel pressure changes at engine start, but is approx. 25000 kPa at engine start after the engine is warmed up.

      Diagnostic Trouble Code Even if Fuel Press is below Target Common Rail Pressure, a DTC will not be stored.
      Injector Assembly
      Main fault Blockage
      Symptoms Rough idle, lack of power, black smoke, white smoke, knocking
      Data List

      Injection Feedback Val


      • When an Injector Feedback Val is more than 3 mm3/st, there may be a malfunction in the corresponding cylinder. This value can be read after idling for 1 minute.

      Pressure Discharge Valve
      Main fault Does not completely close
      Symptoms Difficult to start, engine stall, rough idle, lack of power
      Injector Driver
      Main fault Circuit fault: The injector assembly does not open.
      Symptoms Difficult to start, rough idle, lack of power, black smoke, white smoke, knocking
      Data List Same as injector assembly
      Diagnostic Trouble Code When the injector driver has a fault, some DTCs may be stored.
      Fuel Pressure Sensor
      Main fault Open circuit, decrease in performance (foreign matter is stuck)
      Symptoms Difficult to start, rough idle, engine stall, lack of power
      Data List

      Fuel Press, Target Common Rail Pressure


      • Slowly raise the engine speed from idling to 3000 rpm with the vehicle stopped and check that Fuel Press and Common Rail Pres Sens 2 follow Target Common Rail Pressure. If the fuel pressure sensor malfunctions, the actual fuel pressure may deviate from the target fuel pressure (either Fuel Press or Common Rail Pres Sens 2 decreases to a value less than Target Common Rail Pressure).

      Diagnostic Trouble Code When the fuel pressure sensor has a fault, some DTCs may be stored.
      Irregular Fuel
      Main fault -
      Symptoms Difficult to start, rough idle (especially when cold)
    3. Diesel EGR

      EGR System
      Main fault
      • Does not move smoothly

      • Does not close completely

      Symptoms
      • Rough idle

      • EGR valve stuck closed: A loud turbocharger sound.

      • EGR valve stuck open: Difficult to start (does not stall), black smoke, lack of power (if there is an excess in the quantity of EGR and there is a heavy load, when the vehicle starts moving, a lack of power will be felt).

    4. Diesel Throttle

      Diesel Throttle System
      Main fault Stuck, does not move smoothly
      Symptoms
      • Stuck closed: Lack of power, difficult to start, rough idle, engine stall, black smoke. These may occur when stuck almost fully closed.

      • Stuck open: Turbocharger sound increases. When the engine is stopped, engine vibrations may occur.

  2. Data List Related to Starting Trouble


    • MAP

    • MAF

    • Intake Air

    • Coolant Temp

    • Battery Voltage

    • Starter Signal

    • Target Common Rail Pressure

    • Fuel Press

    • Injection Feedback Val #1 (to #4)

    • Injection Volume

INSPECTION PROCEDURE


  1. Explanation of Symptom

    Starting Trouble

    For good starting it is essential to have:


    • Sufficient cranking speed.

    • Properly operating engine preheating system.

    • Good quality fuel.

    The fuel is ignited by the heat which is generated by compression pressure.

    With problems such as a depleted battery, the crankshaft speed can become low, or if the engine compression is poor due to leakage, the compression pressure will not rise and there will be difficulty starting.

    When the engine is cold, even if there is compression heat, it will escape from the combustion chamber. For this reason, when the engine is started when it is cold, the glow plugs heat the compressed air.

    Also, after starting the engine, by charging the glow plugs for a fixed time set according to the engine coolant temperature, diesel knocking and white smoke are prevented. The quantity of fuel injected is determined by the fuel pressure and also the amount of time the injector assembly is open.

  2. Trouble Area Chart According to Problem Cause

    A01BAT3E02
    A01BHCRE03

    Note


    • After replacing the ECM, the new ECM needs registration Click here and initialization Click here.

    • After replacing the Fuel Supply Pump, the ECM needs initialization Click here.

    • After replacing an injector assembly, the ECM needs registration Click here.

    Tech Tips

    Specified values in the following troubleshooting flowchart are for reference only. Variations in the Data List values may occur depending on the measuring conditions or the vehicle age. Do not assume the vehicle is normal when the Data List outputs standard values. There may be concealed factors of the malfunction.

PROCEDURE


  1. CHECK ENGINE CRANKING CONDITION


    1. Check the engine cranking condition.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Cranking is OK. A

      Low cranking speed.

      Tech Tips

      When cranking speed is low, especially when the temperature is low, check if the engine oil grade matches the recommendation.

      B
      Does not crank at all. C

    B
    C
    A
  2. READ ALL OUTPUT DTCS


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Enter the following menus: Utility / All Codes.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      No DTC is output A
      DTCs related to engine are output B

    B
    A
  3. TAKE SNAPSHOT DURING STARTING AND IDLING (PROCEDURE 3)


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / Data List / All Data.

    4. A01BF3BE02

      Take a snapshot when idling with no load after the engine is warmed up and when starting trouble is occurring.

      Tech Tips


      • A snapshot can be used to compare vehicle data from the time of the malfunction to normal data and is very useful for troubleshooting. The data in the illustration below is that of a normal vehicle, but as the data varies between individual vehicles, this data should only be used for reference.

      • When there is trouble starting with a cold engine, take the snapshot when the engine is cold. Then warm up the engine (engine coolant temperature is 70°C (158°F) or higher) and after idling the vehicle for 1 minute (A/C off, electrical load off), take a snapshot of the data for 15 seconds while idling.

      • Graphs like the ones shown below can be displayed by transferring the stored snapshot from the tester to a PC. Intelligent Viewer must be installed on the PC.

      • Take a snapshot when the problem is occurring, such as when the engine is cold. However, if the problem does not reoccur, it is acceptable to only take a snapshot after the engine is warmed up and when the engine is started.


    NEXT
  4. CHECK SNAPSHOT (FUEL PRESS)


    1. Check Fuel Press in the snapshot taken in procedure 3 when the engine was started.

      A01BEF6E01
      Result
      Result Proceed to
      At the point in the illustration labeled "a", Fuel Press is less than 10000 kPa from the value of Fuel Press when cranking started A
      At the point in the illustration labeled "c", Fuel Press is below Target Common Rail Pressure by 15000 kPa or more B
      Fuel Press increases to a value that is higher than Target Common Rail Pressure immediately after cranking, and, at the point in the illustration labeled "d", Fuel Press is higher than Target Common Rail Pressure C
      Except above D

      Tech Tips


      • Even if Fuel Press is temporarily higher than Target Common Rail Pressure, as shown at the point in the illustration labeled "b", the fuel supply pump is normal.

      • Fuel pressure is about 25000 to 35000 kPa when the engine is cranking and the engine coolant temperature is 0°C (32°F) or higher.

      • Fuel pressure increases rapidly during cranking.


    B
    C
    D
    A
  5. CHECK IF FUEL IS BEING SUPPLIED TO FUEL SUPPLY PUMP


    1. Disconnect the inlet hose from the Fuel Supply Pump.

    2. Operate the priming pump and check that fuel is being supplied to the Fuel Supply Pump.

      OK
      Fuel is properly supplied to the fuel supply pump when the priming pump is operated.

      Tech Tips


      • When there is a lack of fuel, fuel pressure drops.

      • Inspect for Fuel Filter clogging (check that the Fuel Filter is not clogged).

    3. Reconnect the inlet hose.


    NG
    OK
  6. CHECK HARNESS AND CONNECTOR (SUCTION CONTROL VALVE - ECM)


    1. A01BBKLE11

      Disconnect the D47 suction control valve connector.

    2. Disconnect the D1 ECM connector.

    3. Measure the resistance of the wire harness side connector.

      Standard resistance (Check for open)
      Tester Connection Specified Condition
      D47-1 - PCV+ (D1-2) Below 1 Ω
      D47-2 - PCV- (D1-1)
      Standard resistance (Check for short)
      Tester Connection Specified Condition
      D47-1 or PCV+ (D1-2) - Body ground 10 kΩ or higher
      D47-2 or PCV- (D1-1) - Body ground
    4. Reconnect the ECM connector.

    5. Reconnect the suction control valve connector.


    NG
    OK
  7. REPLACE SUCTION CONTROL VALVE


    1. Replace the suction control valve Click here.


    NEXT
  8. BLEED AIR FROM FUEL SYSTEM


    1. Bleed the air from the fuel system Click here.


    NEXT
  9. PERFORM FUEL SUPPLY PUMP INITIALIZATION


    1. Perform fuel supply pump initialization Click here.


    NEXT
  10. READ VALUE USING INTELLIGENT TESTER (FUEL PRESS)


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / Data List / Fuel Press.

    4. Start the engine.

    5. Read the Fuel Press values while cranking and idling the engine.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      The engine cannot be started or the engine can be started but Fuel Press is below 20000 kPa 2 seconds after the starter signal changes from OFF to ON B
      Except above A

    B
    A
  11. INSPECT INJECTOR ASSEMBLY (INSPECTION FOR VALVE CLOSING PROBLEM)


    1. Remove the glow plug assembly for all the cylinders Click here.

    2. Visually check if there is fuel on the glow plugs.

      Tech Tips


      • If there is fuel on a glow plug, fuel may be leaking from an injector assembly.

      • After replacing an injector assembly, make sure that the common rail pressure (fuel pressure) is within 5000 kPa of the target fuel pressure while cranking the engine.

      • If there is fuel on a glow plug, fuel may have mixed with the engine oil. Check the engine oil amount and whether the engine oil smells of diesel fuel. If the oil level is above the full line or the engine oil smells of diesel fuel, replace the engine oil.

    3. Install the glow plug assembly Click here.


    NEXT
  12. CHECK AND REPAIR OR REPLACE CLOGGED FUEL PIPE (INCLUDING FROZEN FUEL) (FUEL TANK - FUEL SUPPLY PUMP)


    1. Check and repair or replace the clogged fuel pipe.


    NEXT
  13. BLEED AIR FROM FUEL SYSTEM


    1. Bleed the air from the fuel system Click here.


    NEXT
  14. READ VALUE USING INTELLIGENT TESTER (FUEL PRESS)


    1. Check Fuel Press in the snapshot taken in procedure 3 when the engine was warmed up.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Fuel Press is more than 5000 kPa from Target Common Rail Pressure A
      Except above B

    B
    A
  15. REPLACE SUCTION CONTROL VALVE


    1. Replace the suction control valve Click here.


    NEXT
  16. PERFORM FUEL SUPPLY PUMP INITIALIZATION


    1. Perform fuel supply pump initialization Click here.


    NEXT
  17. REPLACE INJECTOR ASSEMBLIES OF ALL CYLINDERS


    1. Replace the injector assemblies Click here.

      Note


      • When replacing the injector assembly for a cylinder, always be sure to use a new injection pipe.

      • Follow the procedure in the repair manual and temporarily install the injection pipes and nozzle leakage pipe, and then correctly position the injector assemblies. After that, tighten parts according to the torque specifications.

      • If the installation procedure is not performed correctly, injector assemblies may become out of position, which may cause the injector assemblies to deteriorate, resulting in malfunctions.

      • If an injector assembly deteriorates and malfunctions, other problems such as knocking, rough idle, etc. may occur.

      • If an injector assembly becomes out of position, it is possible that the seal between the injector assembly and injection pipe may become incomplete, resulting in a fuel leak.


    NEXT
  18. CHECK DATA LIST


    1. A01BF3BE02

      Check Injection Feedback Val # in the snapshot taken in procedure 3 when the engine was idling.

      Result
      Result Proceed to

      Injection Feedback Val #1 to #4 are 3 mm3/st or less.

      Injection Volume is more than 12 mm3/st.

      A*

      Injection Feedback Val for at least one cylinder is more than +3 mm3/st

      Tech Tips

      There may be a malfunction in the corresponding cylinder.

      B
      Except above C

      Tech Tips


      • *: When this case occurs, usually symptoms may be noticeable, such as difficulty starting, lack of power.

      • The shift lever should be in neutral and the A/C switch and all accessory switches should be off.


    B
    C
    A
  19. REPLACE INJECTOR ASSEMBLIES OF ALL CYLINDERS


    1. Replace the injector assemblies Click here.

      Note


      • When replacing the injector assembly for a cylinder, always be sure to use a new injection pipe.

      • Follow the procedure in the repair manual and temporarily install the injection pipes and nozzle leakage pipe, and then correctly position the injector assemblies. After that, tighten parts according to the torque specifications.

      • If the installation procedure is not performed correctly, injector assemblies may become out of position, which may cause the injector assemblies to deteriorate, resulting in malfunctions.

      • If an injector assembly deteriorates and malfunctions, other problems such as knocking, rough idle, etc. may occur.

      • If an injector assembly becomes out of position, it is possible that the seal between the injector assembly and injection pipe may become incomplete, resulting in a fuel leak.


    NEXT
  20. CHECK CYLINDER COMPRESSION PRESSURE


    1. Check the cylinder compression pressure Click here.

      Tech Tips

      When compression is low, there may be cracks in the piston or the injector may be installed improperly.


    NG
    OK
  21. REPLACE INJECTOR ASSEMBLY OF MALFUNCTIONING CYLINDER

    Tech Tips

    It can be determined that the injector assembly is faulty as the corresponding cylinder is malfunctioning, but has no compression loss.


    1. Replace the injector assembly Click here.

      Note


      • When replacing the injector assembly for a cylinder, always be sure to use a new injection pipe.

      • Follow the procedure in the repair manual and temporarily install the injection pipes and nozzle leakage pipe, and then correctly position the injector assemblies. After that, tighten parts according to the torque specifications.

      • If the installation procedure is not performed correctly, injector assemblies may become out of position, which may cause the injector assemblies to deteriorate, resulting in malfunctions.

      • If an injector assembly deteriorates and malfunctions, other problems such as knocking, rough idle, etc. may occur.

      • If an injector assembly becomes out of position, it is possible that the seal between the injector assembly and injection pipe may become incomplete, resulting in a fuel leak.


    NEXT
  22. CLEAN FUEL FILTER CASE AND REPLACE FUEL FILTER


    1. Clean the fuel filter case and replace the fuel filter.

      Tech Tips

      Be sure to clean the inside of the fuel filter case as the fuel injectors may not operate properly if the fuel filter is installed with foreign matter remaining inside the fuel filter case.


    NEXT
  23. BLEED AIR FROM FUEL SYSTEM


    1. Bleed the air from the fuel system Click here.


    NEXT
  24. PERFORM ECM INITIALIZATION AND REGISTER INJECTOR COMPENSATION CODE


    1. Perform the ECM initialization.


      1. Connect terminals 13 (TC) and 4 (CG) of the DLC3.

        A01BFMIE90
      2. Turn the ignition switch to ON for 50 minutes or more.

        Note


        • Perform ECM initialization only when the injectors for all the cylinders have been replaced.

        • It is necessary to wait for 50 minutes or more. Otherwise, ECM initialization is not completed.

      3. Turn the ignition switch off.

      4. Disconnect terminals 13 (TC) and 4 (CG).

    2. Register the injector compensation codes Click here.


    NEXT
  25. CONFIRM WHETHER MALFUNCTION HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY REPAIRED


    NEXT
  26. INSPECT INJECTOR DRIVER (POWER SOURCE)


    1. A01BHNME02

      Disconnect the B40 and B42 EDU connectors.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON.

    3. Measure the voltage between the terminals of the EDU connectors.

      Standard voltage
      Tester Connection Specified Condition
      +B (B40-6) - GND (B42-4) 11 to 14 V
    4. Reconnect the EDU connectors.


    NG
    OK
  27. INSPECT INJECTOR ASSEMBLY

    Tech Tips

    If there is no initial combustion during cranking, there may be air in the injector assemblies.


    NEXT
  28. CHECK TEMPERATURE WHEN STARTING TROUBLE OCCURS


    1. Check the temperature when starting trouble occurs.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Difficult to start only for cold engine. A
      Difficult to start both for cold and warmed up engine. B

    B
    A
  29. READ VALUE USING ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR (COOLANT TEMP)


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / Data List / All Data / Coolant Temp.

    4. Read the value displayed on the tester.

      OK
      Coolant Temp is not high when the engine is cold, and not low after the engine is warmed up

    NG
    OK
  30. INSPECT GLOW PLUG ASSEMBLY (RESISTANCE)


    1. Inspect the glow plug Click here.


    NG
    OK
  31. CHECK FUEL QUALITY


    1. Check that only diesel fuel is being used.

    2. Check that the fuel does not contain any impurities.


    NEXT
  32. READ OUTPUT DTC (RELATED TO ENGINE)


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / DTC.

    4. Read the DTCs.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      No DTC is output A
      DTCs related to engine are output B

    B
    A
  33. CHECK COMMUNICATION BETWEEN INTELLIGENT TESTER AND ECM


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Check if the normal starting screen appears (check whether communication with the ECM is possible).

      Tech Tips

      Use a tester that is able to communicate with other vehicles.

      OK
      Communication is possible (vehicle can be recognized).

    NG
    OK
  34. READ VALUE USING INTELLIGENT TESTER (STARTER SIGNAL)


    1. Connect the intelligent tester to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON and turn the tester on.

    3. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / Data List / All Data / Starter Signal.

    4. Read the value displayed on the tester.

      OK
      Tester Display Condition Specified Condition
      Starter Signal Cranking ON

    NG
    OK
  35. CHECK STARTING SYSTEM


    1. Inspect the starting system.

      Tech Tips

      Be sure to inspect the following areas:


      • Starter relay

      • Starter

      • Immobiliser system


    NEXT
  36. CONFIRM WHETHER MALFUNCTION HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY REPAIRED


    NEXT